Maritcha Reymond Lyon was born in the mid-1800s. Her family was free but still had to deal with discrimination and injustices that put obstacles in their path to success. When Maritcha was a teenager one of those obstacles was that fact that she could not go to the all-white high school. It was the only high school in her town, Providence, Rhode Island. Maritcha and her family made the bold decision to sue the state so that Marticha could go to high school. Maritcha was black, and a girl too – two things that many people of her time would have said made it a waste of time for her to go to high school. Maritcha proved them all wrong and went on to become a teacher and school principal in New York City. Author: Tonya Bolden
I don’t know about you, but when I think about black kids fighting to integrate public schools, I think of names like Ruby Bridges and the Little Rock Nine…but these kids fought there fight in the 1960s…not the 1860s!!
Think about that – Maritcha fought her battle almost a hundred years before these other students. That goes to show you that school integration took a very, very long time. The timing also depended on which state and in what part of the country a student lived. Maritcha lived in the North, Ruby Bridges and the Little Rock Nine lived in the South. It took the South much longer to have integrated schools.
About the time Maritcha was fighting to attend high school in Rhode Island, black kids in Indiana were just getting a school. The Leora Brown School opened in Corydon, Indiana in 1891 as the Corydon Colored School. The Corydon Colored School graduated its first class of students on May 14, 1897. Leora Brown, a former student who graduated in 1923, returned to the school as a teacher in 1924 after having attended Miss Blaker’s Teachers College in Indianapolis. One year after Brown’s arrival at the Corydon Colored School, the school’s high-school-age black students were integrated into Corydon High School which was previously attended by white students only. The Corydon Colored School, however, remained open until 1950, when the grade schools were integrated.
Teenage sisters Octavia and Tali can’t believe it when they find out they have to drive all the way across the United States with their crazy Grandmother for a family reunion. She drives slow. She’s nosy. She’s bossy. She smokes. And her car smells funny.
But these are all the things they know about their Grandmother. What they haven’t thought about is all the years their Grandmother was alive before they were even born. What was she like then? What did she do?
Once they start rolling and find hours of time in the car to fill, their Grandmother starts talking and her story is not at all what the girls expected. They know that their Grandmother is strong-willed, stubborn and independent. Now they learn why. Their crazy Grandma with the weird hair and weird shoes was a soldier during World War II! She even lied about her age to get away from home sooner. She became a member of the Women’s Army Corps and served in England, Scotland and France. And does she have stories to tell. Octavia and Tali can’t believe their ears!
It turns out there are a lot of things about their Grandmother they didn’t know; things they like and admire and things they are very, very proud of…even if her car does smell funny. Octavia and Tali’s Grandma’s unit was the 6888th. It was a real unit that served during World War II. The 6888th was the only unit of African Americans in the Women’s Army Corp to serve overseas. Their Grandma was a black woman in a segregated army full of men. No wonder she has such good stories to tell!
The all black 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion worked first in England and France handling a massive backlog of mail. The backlog of mail written to soldiers was so bad it filled warehouses and airplane hangars. After their work was done, the women were discharged without any special recognition for what they had accomplished. No recognition until February 25, 2009. Black Women’s Army Unit Receives Overdue Honors It took 65 years, but the thank-you finally came! Author: Tanita Davis Award: Coretta Scott King Award Author Honor Book 2010; ALA Best Book for Young Adults 2010
The Sweethearts of Rhythm were a real all girl band that traveled around the country in the 1930s and 1940s. The band was unusual because it was all girls and because it was integrated.
One reason the girls got this chance is World War II. A lot of men were fighting in the war so it was easier for a girl band to get gigs. Once they did, then they became popular because they were so good.
Sometimes the band had trouble because it was integrated. When the band played in the South they had to sleep on their tour bus because it was illegal there for black and white people to be in the same restaurant or hotel. Sometimes the girls had to wear disguises to hide the fact that their skin color was not all the same.
The author tells the story of the Sweethearts in poems and she uses the rhythms of jazz music in her poetry. It’s not like reading a book of facts. Read the poems, look at the great pictures and then don’t forget to read the author’s note in the back. That part will give you the facts about the Sweethearts of Rhythm. Author: Marilyn Nelson
From the 1870s to the 1950s, Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis served as the focal point of Indianapolis’s black community. Originally called Indiana Street, the Avenue begins at the intersection of Illinois and Ohio Streets and extends northwest. While the Avenue was originally settled by German and Irish immigrants, by 1870 one-third of Indianapolis’s black population lived near Indiana Avenue. The black population in Indianapolis surged in the early 1900s as blacks migrated to the city from the South.
The Indiana Avenue businesses included restaurants, saloons, grocery stores, clothing stores, hair stylists, barber shops, a hotel, and more. Some of the most famous businesses on the Avenue were the Indianapolis Recorder (a black newspaper) and the Walker Building (which housed a casino and theatre, offices, a beauty college, drugstore, and restaurant.) In the 1930s, the Avenue’s businesses were focused on food and entertainment. By 1940 there were more than twenty-five jazz clubs on the Avenue where both national talent and local legends played. I wonder if the Sweethearts of Rhythm ever played there?
This is the story of a young African-American boy who grew up in Indianapolis over a hundred years ago. Despite living at a time when African-Americans were often denied basic rights, Marshall Taylor became a world champion cyclist.
Marshall earned the nickname “Major” when he performed bicycle tricks as a very young boy dressed in a military style costume. When he was a teenager he stopped performing tricks and moved on to bicycle racing – and he was really, really good – world champion good! His story is inspiring because he persevered even when there were many people who didn’t want him to even be in a race, let alone win, just because he was African-American. Sometimes he rode fast just to get away from angry people chasing him! Author: Marlene Targ Brill
In Indianapolis, we have the Major Taylor Velodrome, a world-class bicycle racing track named for this cycling great. You can ride your bike and also use inline skates at the Velodrome. If you want to try riding there, it’s best if you are at least 10 years old. Call ahead and see if you can arrange a time to go try it out. And don’t forget your helmet! 3649 Cold Spring Rd., Indianapolis, IN 46222 Velodrome Phone: 317-327-8356
Bass Reeves grew up as a slave in Texas. Even as a young boy he was good with a gun. His master used to take him to shooting contests to show him off. One night though, when Bass was a young man, he and his master got in a fight and Bass punched his owner. Hitting a white man was punishable by death – so Bass ran, and he ran as a fast and as far as he could – all the way to Indian Territory in the West.
The frontier wasn’t called the Wild West for nothing. It was rough country with outlaws roaming around. The West was a great place for bad guys to hide. In 1875 the government hired 200 deputy marshals to help bring order to the frontier and Bass Reeves was one of them. He was also the best one. He could fight and he could shoot when he had too, but mostly, he was smart. He was also know for his honesty and integrity. One time, he had to arrest his own son! Author: Vaunda Micheaux Nelson
Another great book about Bass is The Legend of Bass Reeves. Gary Paulsen, the author of this book, calls it “the true and fictional account of the most valiant marshal in the West.” Mr. Paulsen adds a little here and there to fill in the places where history left gaps…but for the most part, this is the story of Bass the real guy – the first African-American U.S. Deputy Marshal west of the Mississippi – and this was in the 1870s! Bass became a legend, even in his own time. Some outlaws turned themselves in once they heard it was Bass that would be looking for them! Bass Reeves – an American original!
In 1804 a man named York, the slave of Captain William Clark, traveled into the unknown Western frontier with the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Black cowboys and Buffalo Soldiers also lived and worked on the Western frontier in the 1800s.